Types of Database: In the field of Technology, storing the huge amount of data is one of the most challenging and important task.
The technology which is used for storing and managing this huge data is called Database.
Similarly, DBMS (Database Management System) is a software which is used for storing, managing, retrieving, deleting, updating and performing many more operation on the huge amount of data.
There are different types of Database Management System available each having different features and functionality.
Here are the Top 10 different Types of Database Management Systems:
1. Relational Database
RDBMS also known as Relational Database is the most popular database in which the data is stored in Tables in the form of Rows and Columns.
Here the column represents the type of data and row represents the entity or record.
It is called Relational Database, because In RDBMS, the data or tables are connected with each other having a Relational Model.
Relational Database is used for managing the large amount of data in a structured manner.
The query language for handling Relational Database is SQL, which stands for Structured Query Language.
Top Relational Databases available: MySQL, PostgreSQL, MariaDB, Oracle Database, SAP HANA.
2. NoSQL Database
NoSQL Database is used for handling the large amount of unstructured data.
Unlike Relational Database, here we don’t use table (rows and columns) for storing data.
There are different types and ways available in NoSQL for storing the data in Database. For example – Graph Database, Document Store and Key-Value Store.
We have also created a separate article on SQL vs NoSQL in which we have completely explained about the difference between Relational Databases and NoSQL Databases
Top NoSQL Databases available: MongoDB, Apache HBase, Couchbase, Redis, Cassandra.
3. Object-Oriented Database
In Object-Oriented Database, data is stored in the form of objects, which are the instance of class.
Top Object-Oriented Databases available: ObjectDatabase++, Perst, ObjectDB, ObjectStore.
4. Centralized Database
In Centralized Database, all the data is stored in one single database which is stored in one particular physical location.
As the database is stored in one location only, so the cost of Centralized Database is much cheaper and is very secure compared to other database.
5. Distributed Database
Unlike Centralized Database, In Distributed Database, the data is stored on multiple databases having different physical locations.
Since, the databases are stored on more than one location, so Distributed Database is very costly and is less secure as compared to Centralized Database.
Top Distributed Databases available: CockroachDB, Azure SQL Database, ClustrixDB, Google Cloud Spanner.
6. Cloud Database
Cloud Database is similar to traditional database (Relational or NoSQL Database).
The only difference between Cloud Database and Traditional Database is that in Traditional Database, the Database is stored in dedicated storage devices.
On the other hand, In Cloud Database, the Database is stored in Cloud Platform, like – Cloud SQL by Google, Amazon Web Services, Azure by Microsoft and many more.
In Cloud Database, most of the things are automatic and managed by Cloud Provider.
No dedicated hardware is required in Cloud Database. As a result, Cloud Database is quite cheap and most of the enterprise are using it as well.
Top Cloud Databases available: Google Cloud SQL, Amazon Relational Database, IBM Db2 on Cloud, EnterpriseDB.
7. Graph Database
Graph Database is the type of NoSQL Database, in which the data is represented as Node or Vertices and the relationship between data is represented with Edges.
So, Graph Database is more realistic approach of storing and representing the data as compared to other Database.
Top Graph Databases available: ArangoDB, Neo4j, FlockDB, OrientDB.
8. Operational Database
Operational Database is database in which data is stored and operations are performed in realtime.
Operational Database is used by many businesses. For example – Stock Market uses Operational Database for getting most up-to-date information related to stock prices and number of stock available.
Operational Database can be used with Relational as well NoSQL Database.
Top Operational Databases available: Amazon DynamoDB, MapR Technologies, DataStax, Simon Data.
9. Hierarchical Database
Hierarchical Database is a type of database in which the data is stored in the form of tree-like structure.
Here the data is represented as a parent child relationship, in which one parent can have multiple child and a child can have only single parent.
Hierarchical Database is a much structured way of organizing the data and is used for creating a real world data model.
10. Network Database
Network Database is similar to hierarchical database. However, unlike hierarchical database, here a child can have multiple parents.
So, Network Database is the updated version of hierarchical database. It is heavily used in Network based Applications.
Hope you like the article on Different types of Database and how does it actually work.